Air Quality and Human Health

 

Health effects

A constant finding is that air pollutants contribute to increased mortality and hospital admissions. The different composition of air pollutants, the dose and time of exposure and the fact that humans are usually exposed to pollutant mixtures than to single substances, can lead to diverse impacts on human health. Human health effects can range from nausea and difficulty in breathing or skin irritation, to cancer. They also include birth defects, serious developmental delays in children, and reduced activity of the immune system, leading to a number of diseases. Moreover, there exist several susceptibility factors such as age, nutritional status and predisposing conditions. Health effects can be distinguished to acute, chronic not including cancer and cancerous. Epidemiological and animal model data indicate that primarily affected systems are the cardiovascular and the respiratory system. However, the function of several other organs can be also influenced.

Effects of air pollutants on different organs and systems

Respiratory system:

Numerous studies describe that all types of air pollution, at high concentration, can affect the airways. Nevertheless, similar effects are also observed with long-term exposure to lower pollutant concentrations. Symptoms such as nose and throat irritation, followed by bronchoconstriction and dyspnoea, especially in asthmatic individuals, are usually experienced after exposure to increased levels of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and certain heavy metals such as arsenic, nickel or vanadium. In addition particulate matter that penetrates the alveolar epithelium and ozone initiates lung inflammation. In patients with lung lesions or lung diseases, pollutant-initiated inflammation will worsen their condition. Moreover air pollutants such as nitrogen oxides increase the susceptibility to respiratory infections. Finally chronic exposure to ozone and certain heavy metals reduces lung function, while the later are also responsible for asthma, emphysema, and even lung cancer. Emphysema-like lesions have also been observed in mice exposed to nitrogen dioxide. Cardiovascular system : Carbon monoxide binds to haemoglobin modifying its conformation and reduces its capacity to transfer oxygen. This reduced oxygen availability can affect the function of different organs (and especially high oxygen-consuming organs such as the brain and the heart), resulting in impaired concentration, slow reflexes, and confusion. Apart from lung inflammation, systemic inflammatory changes are induced by particulate matter, affecting blood coagulation equally. Air pollution that induces lung irritation and changes in blood clotting can obstruct (cardiac) blood vessels, leading to angina or even to myocardial infarction. Symptoms such as tachycardia, increased blood pressure and anaemia due to an inhibitory effect on haematopoiesis have been observed as a consequence of heavy metal pollution (specifically mercury, nickel and arsenic). Finally, epidemiologic studies have linked dioxin exposure to increased mortality caused by ischemic heart disease, while in mice; it was shown that heavy metals can also increase triglyceride levels.

Nervous system:

The nervous system is mainly affected by heavy metals (lead, mercury and arsenic) and dioxins. Neurotoxicity leading to neuropathies, with symptoms such as memory disturbances, sleep disorders, anger, fatigue, hand tremors, blurred vision, and slurred speech, have been observed after arsenic, lead and mercury exposure. Especially, lead exposure causes injury to the dopamine system, glutamate system, and N-methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex, which play an important role in memory functions. Mercury is also responsible for certain cases of neurological cancer. Dioxins decrease nerve conduction velocity and impaired mental development of children.

Urinary system:

Heavy metals can induce kidney damage such as an initial tubular dysfunction evidenced by an increased excretion of low molecular weight proteins, which progresses to decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In addition they increase the risk of stone formation or nephrocalcinosis and renal cancer.

Digestive system:

Dioxins induce liver cell damage, as indicated by an increase in levels of certain enzymes in the blood, as well as gastrointestinal and liver cancer.